Insulin is a hormone that regulates the level of glucose in the blood. When a person eats a portion of carbohydrates, the blood glucose level rises. The pancreas starts producing hormone insulin, which begins to utilize glucose (previously stopping its own processes of producing glucose by the liver), spreading it over the cells of the whole organism. In a healthy person, with a decrease in blood glucose, insulin is no longer produced. The relationship between insulin and cells is healthy.
With impaired insulin sensitivity, the pancreas produces too much insulin. The process of penetration of glucose into cells is difficult, the presence of insulin in the blood becomes Human Growth Hormone (HGH) very long, which leads to poor consequences for metabolism (it slows down).
However, insulin is not only a regulator of blood sugar levels. It also stimulates protein synthesis in muscles. And also inhibits lipolysis (fat splitting) and stimulates lipogenesis (accumulation of fat stores).
Insulin is the most important regulator of intermediate metabolism. Its main effect is to reduce blood sugar: it facilitates the absorption and use of glucose by muscle and fat cells and inhibits the formation of new glucose molecules in the liver. In addition, it promotes the storage of glucose in cells in the form of glycogen, as well as the accumulation of other substances – potential energy sources (fat, protein), inhibit their decay and utilization by the body. Insulin secreted by islet cells is partially accumulated in the pancreas, and the main stimulus for its release and synthesis in an additional amount is an increase in the level of glucose in the blood. Insulin is produced continuously, but the rate of its secretion varies, and the action itself is strictly coordinated with the effects of other hormones (glucagon, catecholamines) that increase the level of glucose in the blood, which ensures the maintenance of this level within narrow limits of the norm (about 80-100 mg of glucose per 100 ml of blood). Circulation insulin is rapidly inactivated, mainly in the liver and kidneys; The period of his half-life in the body is only a few minutes.